Understanding Myeloproliferative Neoplasm and Its Treatment Options

Understanding Myeloproliferative Neoplasm and Its Treatment Options

Julie Scott, DNP
Julie Scott, DNP
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) | cancerGO

What are Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs)

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of blood cancers that affect the bone marrow and the blood cells it produces. They lead to the abnormal growth of one or more types of blood cells that the bone marrow produces, including white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets. MPNs include conditions such as:

  • Polycythemia vera (PV)
  • Essential thrombocythemia (ET)
  • Myelofibrosis

Risk factors

Risk factors for MPNs include:

  • exposure to radiation
  • exposure to certain chemicals such as benzene
  • having a family history of the disease
  • Tobacco use
  • Exposure to pesticides and fertilizers


Symptoms of MPNs vary depending on the type of MPN, but common symptoms include:

  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Night sweats
  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Itching
  • Enlarged spleen (splenomegaly)
  • Bone pain
  • Blood clots
  • Bleeding or bruising easily
  • Bone marrow transplant


The ultimate diagnosis of MPNs usually requires a combination of blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, and genetic testing. Blood tests can help to identify the type of MPN and the level of certain blood cells. A bone marrow biopsy can help to confirm the diagnosis of MPN and to stage the disease.

Genetic testing can help identify specific genetic mutations associated with MPNs.

Sometimes imaging tests such as CT, MRI, or ultrasound may be needed to evaluate the body’s organs, such as the spleen or liver.


Treatment for MPNs depends on the type of MPN and the stage of the disease. The goal of treatment is to control symptoms and to reduce the risk of complications such as blood clots and bleeding. Treatment options include:

  • Medications to lower blood counts
  • Medications to stimulate blood counts
  • Steroids
  • Phlebotomy (removing blood if there are too many red blood cells)
  • Interferon treatment
  • Splenectomy (surgical removal of the spleen)
  • Targeted therapy (medication to target specific genetic mutations)


In summary, MPN is a group of blood cancer disorders that affect the bone marrow and the production of blood cells. Although there is no cure for MPN, treatments are available to manage symptoms and reduce the risk of developing more serious complications. It is important to work with a healthcare team experienced in managing MPN to develop the best treatment plan for you.


Julie Scott, DNP
Julie Scott, DNP
Julie is an oncology certified Oncology Nurse Practitioner with over a decade of medical oncology experience. In addition to her clinical work, she is an accomplished healthcare writer providing oncology content for various publications. She also serves as an adjunct faculty member for a Master's nursing program and a chair for Doctoral nursing students.

Download our
mobile app

Share this post
You may also like
How Technology Impacts Education and Patient Experience
April 11, 2023

Cancer diagnosis and treatment can be a challenging and complex process, often requiring a multidisciplinary approach involving physicians, nurses, social workers, and other healthcare professionals.  From diagnosis through survivorship, patients require education about their condition, treatment options, and available resources. In recent years, technology has played an increasingly important role…

Jenni Daniel BSN, RN


Understanding Medulloblastoma – Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments Explained
January 23, 2023

What is Medulloblastoma? Medulloblastoma is a type of cancerous brain tumor. It is a tumor that grows quickly in the cerebellum, which is the part of the brain that controls balance and coordination. Medulloblastoma is most commonly found in children, but adults can experience this as well. Symptoms The symptoms…

Julie Scott, DNP


The Little-known Cancer – Cancer of Unknown Primary (CUP)
November 4, 2022

CUP, also known as Cancer of unknown primary, is Cancer that has metastasized from another body part. The site where it began, also called the primary site, is unknown in this case. Why CUP is a challenging cancer? Cancer of unknown primary is often challenging because it tends to be…

Vino Cherian


cancerGO gives you access to a community

Where are people to listen, answer questions, share information, and offer valuable and timely advice