Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

Julie Scott, DNP
Julie Scott, DNP

What is Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in the United States. The average female will have about a 13% chance of getting breast cancer sometime in her life. That number may be higher for women who are at higher risk due to genetic factors. 

Risk Factors

The most common risk factors for getting breast cancer include:

  • Getting older
  • Family history of breast or ovarian cancer
  • Genetic mutations such as BRCA
  • Having dense breasts
  • Previously having radiation therapy to the chest
  • Obesity
  • Taking hormone replacement therapy for > 5 years
  • Heavy alcohol use

Diagnostic Imaging

Mammograms are x-rays of the breast. These x-rays can look for changes of the breast that may suggest the development of breast cancer. If something suspicious is seen on a mammogram, the next step is usually a breast ultrasound. 

A breast ultrasound can be done to get a better look at something a mammogram showed, or to get a better look at dense breasts. An ultrasound can also be done during a biopsy to help guide the radiologist on where to get the tissue. 

Breast MRI is another diagnostic tool that can be used to look at the breasts. Sometimes they are used as a screening tool for those at high risk of getting breast cancer. MRI can be used if the mammogram and ultrasound are inconclusive.

CT scans and PET scans can be done after someone has been diagnosed with breast cancer, to see if there has been any spread of cancer outside of the breasts. 


If a mass in the breast is suspicious for cancer, a biopsy will be ordered. This is often done by a surgeon or radiologist, who will get a small sample of the tissue to check for the presence of cancer cells. 

Once a diagnosis is made, and any other additional imaging is done, the cancer team can diagnose the stage of the cancer. 


Breast cancer is staged from 0 to IV, with higher stages meaning the cancer is more advanced. Staging is based on the size of the tumor, the involvement of any nearby lymph nodes, and presence of metastases, or spread to other organs. 


Are you interested in learning more about Breast Cancer Characteristics? Check out our next article on this topic.

Julie Scott, DNP
Julie Scott, DNP
Julie is an oncology certified Oncology Nurse Practitioner with over a decade of medical oncology experience. In addition to her clinical work, she is an accomplished healthcare writer providing oncology content for various publications. She also serves as an adjunct faculty member for a Master's nursing program and a chair for Doctoral nursing students.

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